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한국제임스조이스학회

한국제임스조이스학회 The James Joyce Society of Korea

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국문제목 The Four Riders in the Funeral Carriage: Three Irelands and Bloom in Joyce’s “Hades”
영문제목 The Four Riders in the Funeral Carriage: Three Irelands and Bloom in Joyce’s “Hades”
저자 Hye Ryoung Kil
출처 11-35
29권
2호
발행년 2023년 12월
논문자료 [첨부파일 다운받기] 1_길혜령.pdf

This essay examines the four men riding in the funeral carriage to Glasnevin Cemetery in “Hades,” aiming to analyze the conflicting reality of colonial Ireland in the early twentieth century. The first three men to enter the carriage each represent a different facet of Ireland, with the first one holding the most influence. Martin Cunningham, the first to board the carriage, embodies Catholic Ireland, characterized by authority and practicality. Jack Power, the second, symbolizes British Ireland, aligning with pro-British Catholic sentiments. Simon Dedalus, the third, stands for nationalist Ireland, albeit degenerated and anti-Catholic in nature. These three versions of Ireland are marked by hopelessness in the context of Irish independence, as Catholic Ireland often aligns with British Ireland against nationalist Ireland. This alignment leads the carriage, with its three occupants, on a descent into Hades. Leopold Bloom, the fourth and last person to enter the carriage, represents an alternative Ireland that is economically self-sufficient, though not politically. As the son of a Hungarian-Jewish immigrant, Bloom identifies as a secular and patriotic Jew, making him as authentically Irish as the other three passengers. In fact, Bloom’s pragmatic patriotism aligns with Griffith’s economic nationalism, an ideology endorsed by Joyce, except for its anti-Semitic sentiments. The new Ireland that Bloom symbolizes is therefore devoid of racial or religious animosity, setting it apart from Griffith’s and the other three versions of Ireland. Bloom’s Ireland embraces life “in the midst of death” and is qualified to return from the underworld. 

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